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documentation:examples:fair_traffic_shaping_per_ip_with_ipfw-dummynet

Fair traffic shaping per ip with ipfw and dummynet

This lab shows an example of fair sharing asymmetric Internet access between multiple users (one user = one IP address). This feature is called User-Based Rate Limiting on few Cisco products.

Network diagram

And here is this lab detailed diagram:

Fair traffic shaping diagram

Virtual Lab setp

This chapter will describe how to start each routers and configuring the 4 hosts.

More information on these BSDRP lab scripts available on How to build a BSDRP router lab.

Start the Virtual lab (example using bhyve):

BSDRP-lab-bhyve.sh -i BSDRP-1.60-full-amd64-serial.img.xz -n 5 -l 1
BSD Router Project (http://bsdrp.net) - bhyve full-meshed lab script
Setting-up a virtual lab with 5 VM(s):
- Working directory: /tmp/BSDRP
- Each VM have 1 core(s) and 256M RAM
- Switch mode: bridge + tap
- 1 LAN(s) between all VM
- Full mesh Ethernet links between each VM
VM 1 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 2.
- vtnet1 connected to VM 3.
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4.
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5.
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 2 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1.
- vtnet1 connected to VM 3.
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4.
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5.
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 3 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1.
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2.
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4.
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5.
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 4 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1.
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2.
- vtnet2 connected to VM 3.
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5.
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 5 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1.
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2.
- vtnet2 connected to VM 3.
- vtnet3 connected to VM 4.
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
For connecting to VM'serial console, you can use:
- VM 1 : cu -l /dev/nmdm1B
- VM 2 : cu -l /dev/nmdm2B
- VM 3 : cu -l /dev/nmdm3B
- VM 4 : cu -l /dev/nmdm4B
- VM 5 : cu -l /dev/nmdm5B

User PC configuration

Each user PC will be configured as simple DHCP clients.

Router 1

sysrc hostname=R1
sysrc gateway_enable=no
sysrc ipv6_gateway_enable=no
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="DHCP"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_ipv6="inet6 accept_rtadv"
sysrc rtsold_enable="YES"
service netif restart
service routing restart
service rtsold start
config save

Router 2

sysrc hostname=R2
sysrc gateway_enable=no
sysrc ipv6_gateway_enable=no
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="DHCP"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_ipv6="inet6 accept_rtadv"
sysrc rtsold_enable="YES"
service netif restart
service routing restart
service rtsold start
config save

Router 3

sysrc hostname=R3
sysrc gateway_enable=no
sysrc ipv6_gateway_enable=no
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="DHCP"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_ipv6="inet6 accept_rtadv"
sysrc rtsold_enable="YES"
service netif restart
service routing restart
service rtsold start
config save

Internet server configuration

It's a simple static host

sysrc hostname=R5
sysrc gateway_enable=no
sysrc ipv6_gateway_enable=no
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3="10.0.5.5/24"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3_ipv6="inet6 2001:db8:5::5/64"
sysrc defaultrouter="10.0.5.4"
sysrc ipv6_defaultrouter="2001:db8:5::4"
service netif restart
service routing restart

Traffic shaper configuration

It's a DHCPv4 server and traffic shaper.

sysrc hostname=R4
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="10.0.0.4/24"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_ipv6="inet6 2001:db8::4/64"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3="10.0.5.4/24"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3_ipv6="inet6 2001:db8:5::4/64"
sysrc rtadvd_enable=yes
sysrc rtadvd_interfaces=vtnet4
sysrc dhcpd_enable=YES
sysrc dhcpd_flags="-q"
sysrc dhcpd_conf="/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf"
sysrc dhcpd_ifaces="vtnet4"
sysrc firewall_enable=YES
sysrc firewall_script="/etc/ipfw.rules"

cat > /usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf <<EOF
option domain-name "bsdrp.net";
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
ddns-update-style none;
subnet 10.0.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
}
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
  range 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.3;
  option routers 10.0.0.4;
}
EOF

cat > /etc/ipfw.rules <<'EOF'
#!/bin/sh
fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw"
if ! kldstat -q -m dummynet; then
        kldload dummynet
fi
# Flush out the list before we begin.
${fwcmd} -f flush
oif=vtnet3              # Output interface
bwu=50Mbit/s    # Maximum upload speed
bwd=100Mbit/s   # Maximum download speed
# Declare hard-limit of our links (2 because bidirectional)
${fwcmd} pipe 1 config bw $bwu
${fwcmd} pipe 2 config bw $bwd
# per-ip fair queueing
${fwcmd} queue 1 config pipe 1 mask src-ip 0xffffffff
${fwcmd} queue 2 config pipe 2 mask dst-ip 0xffffffff
# Assing outgoing traffic to upload queue and incoming to download queue
${fwcmd} add queue 1 ip from any to any xmit $oif out
${fwcmd} add queue 2 ip from any to any recv $oif in
# We don't want to block traffic, only shape some
${fwcmd} add 3000 allow ip from any to any
EOF

service netif restart
service routing restart
service isc-dhcpd start
service rtadvd start
service ipfw start
config save

Shapping Tests

Start 3 iperf3 servers on the “Internet server”, on 3 different TCP ports (uses tmux).

[root@R5]~# iperf3 -s -p 9091
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 9091
-----------------------------------------------------------
[root@R5]~# iperf3 -s -p 9092
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 9092
-----------------------------------------------------------
[root@R5]~# iperf3 -s -p 9093
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 9093
-----------------------------------------------------------

With only one user

If there is only one user it should have the full bandwith. From only one client (R1, R2 or R3) start by generating traffic toward the iperf3 server for checking maximum upload bandwith is correctly shapped to 50Mb/s:

[root@R3]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9093
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 5201
[  4] local 10.0.0.3 port 10049 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9093
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  57.6 MBytes  48.4 Mbits/sec   69   98.5 MBytes
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec   72   86.5 MBytes
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec   72   70.5 MBytes
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec   72   52.0 MBytes
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  57.6 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec   70   96.5 MBytes
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec   72   82.5 MBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   345 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec  427             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   345 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

⇒ Upload is correctly shaped to 50Mb/s.

Now a “reverse” bench (server will send data to user) for testing the download shaping:

[root@r3]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -R -p 9093
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 5201
Reverse mode, remote host 10.0.5.5 is sending
[  4] local 10.0.0.3 port 10280 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9093
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.6 Mbits/sec
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.5 Mbits/sec
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.5 Mbits/sec
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.5 Mbits/sec
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.5 Mbits/sec
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec   115 MBytes  96.5 Mbits/sec
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   691 MBytes  96.6 Mbits/sec  858             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   691 MBytes  96.6 Mbits/sec                  receiver

⇒ Download is correctly shaped to 100Mb/s.

With two users

Now start iperf clients on the same time on 2 clients and check that upload is equally share (25Mb/s each):

[root@R3]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9093
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 9093
[  4] local 10.0.0.3 port 36202 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9093
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  28.9 MBytes  24.2 Mbits/sec   28   96.5 MBytes
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   29   88.0 MBytes
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   28   76.0 MBytes
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   28   65.2 MBytes
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   27   39.2 MBytes
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  32.6 MBytes  27.3 Mbits/sec   32   60.5 MBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   177 MBytes  24.7 Mbits/sec  172             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   176 MBytes  24.7 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.
[root@R2]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9092
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 9092
[  4] local 10.0.0.1 port 25306 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9092
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  32.8 MBytes  27.5 Mbits/sec   35    103 MBytes
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   29   97.2 MBytes
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   27   90.0 MBytes
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   31   68.0 MBytes
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.1 Mbits/sec   28   2.00 MBytes
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  28.8 MBytes  24.2 Mbits/sec   27   98.0 MBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   177 MBytes  24.7 Mbits/sec  177             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   177 MBytes  24.7 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

⇒ Upload bandwidth is fair-shaped-shared between these two users.

Now the download speed should be 50Mb/s each too:

[root@R3]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9093 -R
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 9093
Reverse mode, remote host 10.0.5.5 is sending
[  4] local 10.0.0.3 port 14377 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9093
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  69.4 MBytes  58.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   357 MBytes  49.9 Mbits/sec  430             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   357 MBytes  49.9 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.
[root@R2]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9092 -R
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 9092
Reverse mode, remote host 10.0.5.5 is sending
[  4] local 10.0.0.1 port 56926 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9092
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  57.6 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  57.5 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  69.3 MBytes  58.2 Mbits/sec
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   357 MBytes  49.9 Mbits/sec  459             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   357 MBytes  49.9 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

⇒ Same correct behavior here.

During this bench, on the router, queue 1 (upload) and queue 2 (download) status:

[root@R4]~# ipfw queue 1 show
q00001  50 sl. 2 flows (64 buckets) sched 1 weight 1 lmax 1500 pri 0 droptail
    mask:  0x00 0xffffffff/0x0000 -> 0x00000000/0x0000
BKT Prot ___Source IP/port____ ____Dest. IP/port____ Tot_pkt/bytes Pkt/Byte Drp
  2 ip          10.0.0.1/0             0.0.0.0/0      460    23968  0    0   0
  6 ip          10.0.0.3/0             0.0.0.0/0     8914   475448  0    0   0
[root@R4]~# ipfw queue 2 show
q00002  50 sl. 2 flows (64 buckets) sched 2 weight 1 lmax 1500 pri 0 droptail
    mask:  0x00 0x00000000/0x0000 -> 0xffffffff/0x0000
BKT Prot ___Source IP/port____ ____Dest. IP/port____ Tot_pkt/bytes Pkt/Byte Drp
  1 ip           0.0.0.0/0            10.0.0.1/0     131602 197344212 29 43500 235
  3 ip           0.0.0.0/0            10.0.0.3/0     148839 223199376 46 69000 239

With three users

Same correct behavior with three users, here is the upload bandwith of one of the three users:

[root@R1]~# iperf3 -c 10.0.5.5 -t 60 -i 10 -f m -p 9091
Connecting to host 10.0.5.5, port 9091
[  4] local 10.0.0.2 port 35814 connected to 10.0.5.5 port 9091
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  19.5 MBytes  16.3 Mbits/sec   26   64.0 MBytes
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  19.2 MBytes  16.1 Mbits/sec   21   71.2 MBytes
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  19.7 MBytes  16.6 Mbits/sec   22   85.2 MBytes
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  19.4 MBytes  16.2 Mbits/sec   22   86.5 MBytes
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  18.6 MBytes  15.6 Mbits/sec   22   72.4 MBytes
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  27.9 MBytes  23.4 Mbits/sec   32   94.5 MBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   124 MBytes  17.4 Mbits/sec  145             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec   124 MBytes  17.4 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

⇒ Only 50M/3 = 16.66 Mbs for each user regarding upload.

Queues status on the router during this three-users bench:

[root@R4]~# ipfw queue 1 show
q00001  50 sl. 3 flows (64 buckets) sched 1 weight 1 lmax 1500 pri 0 droptail
    mask:  0x00 0xffffffff/0x0000 -> 0x00000000/0x0000
BKT Prot ___Source IP/port____ ____Dest. IP/port____ Tot_pkt/bytes Pkt/Byte Drp
  2 ip          10.0.0.1/0             0.0.0.0/0     56973 85424308 49 73500  82
  4 ip          10.0.0.2/0             0.0.0.0/0     53684 80483232 26 39000  87
  6 ip          10.0.0.3/0             0.0.0.0/0     16313 24462252 33 49500  26
[root@R4]~# ipfw queue 2 show
q00002  50 sl. 3 flows (64 buckets) sched 2 weight 1 lmax 1500 pri 0 droptail
    mask:  0x00 0x00000000/0x0000 -> 0xffffffff/0x0000
BKT Prot ___Source IP/port____ ____Dest. IP/port____ Tot_pkt/bytes Pkt/Byte Drp
  1 ip           0.0.0.0/0            10.0.0.1/0     1149    61252  0    0   0
  2 ip           0.0.0.0/0            10.0.0.2/0     1094    58504  1   72   0
  3 ip           0.0.0.0/0            10.0.0.3/0     1060    56568  1   52   0
documentation/examples/fair_traffic_shaping_per_ip_with_ipfw-dummynet.txt · Last modified: 2016/12/09 09:12 by olivier