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Multi-tenant router or firewall

This lab shows how to create multi-tenant router or firewall using jail/vnet (available since BSDRP 1.80).

Presentation

Network diagram

Lab build following How to build a BSDRP router lab: 5 routers with full-meshed link and one shared LAN.

Here is the logical and physical view:

Setting-up a virtual lab

Downloading BSD Router Project images

Download BSDRP serial image (prevent to have to use an X display) on Sourceforge.

Download Lab scripts

More information on these BSDRP lab scripts available on How to build a BSDRP router lab.

Start the lab with full-meshed 5 routers and one shared LAN, on this example using bhyve lab script on FreeBSD:

[root@FreeBSD]~# tools/BSDRP-lab-bhyve.sh -i BSDRP-1.71-full-amd64-serial.img.xz -n 5 -l 1
BSD Router Project (http://bsdrp.net) - bhyve full-meshed lab script
Setting-up a virtual lab with 5 VM(s):
- Working directory: /tmp/BSDRP
- Each VM have 1 core(s) and 256M RAM
- Switch mode: bridge + tap
- 1 LAN(s) between all VM
- Full mesh Ethernet links between each VM
VM 1 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 2
- vtnet1 connected to VM 3
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 2 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1
- vtnet1 connected to VM 3
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 3 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2
- vtnet2 connected to VM 4
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 4 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2
- vtnet2 connected to VM 3
- vtnet3 connected to VM 5
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
VM 5 have the following NIC:
- vtnet0 connected to VM 1
- vtnet1 connected to VM 2
- vtnet2 connected to VM 3
- vtnet3 connected to VM 4
- vtnet4 connected to LAN number 1
For connecting to VM'serial console, you can use:
- VM 1 : cu -l /dev/nmdm1B
- VM 2 : cu -l /dev/nmdm2B
- VM 3 : cu -l /dev/nmdm3B
- VM 4 : cu -l /dev/nmdm4B
- VM 5 : cu -l /dev/nmdm5B

Configuration

  • Router 4 (R4) hosts the 3 routers/firewalls for each 3 customers.
  • Router 1 (R1) belongs to customer 1, router 2 (R2) to customer 2 and router 3 (R3) to customer 3.
  • Router 5 (R5) simulates a simple Internet host.

Router 5: Simple Internet host

R5 simulate a simple Internet host:

sysrc hostname=R5
hostname R5
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3="inet 10.254.254.5/24"
sysrc -x gateway_enable
sysrc -x ipv6_gateway_enable
service netif restart
service routing restart
config save

Router 1: Customer 1 workstation

R1 simulate customer 1's workstation, generate customer 1' SSH keys:

sysrc hostname=R1
hostname R1
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="up"
sysrc vlans_vtnet4="1"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_1="inet 10.0.0.1/24"
sysrc defaultrouter="10.0.0.254"
sysrc -x gateway_enable
sysrc -x ipv6_gateway_enable
service netif restart
service routing restart
ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -N ''
config save

Then display the public SSH key (need to declare it into the customer 1's firewall):

cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa (...) root@R1

Router 2: Customer 2 workstation

R2 simulate customer 2's workstation, and host customer 2 SSH keys too.

sysrc hostname=R2
hostname R2
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="up"
sysrc vlans_vtnet4="2"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_2="inet 10.0.0.1/24"
sysrc defaultrouter="10.0.0.254"
sysrc -x gateway_enable
sysrc -x ipv6_gateway_enable
service netif restart
service routing restart
ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -N ''
config save

Then display the public SSH key (need to declare it into the customer 2's firewall):

cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa (...) root@R2

Router 3: Customer 3 workstation

R3 simulate customer 3's workstation, and host customer 3 SSH keys too.

sysrc hostname=R3
hostname R3
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="up"
sysrc vlans_vtnet4="3"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_3="inet 10.0.0.1/24"
sysrc defaultrouter="10.0.0.254"
sysrc -x gateway_enable
sysrc -x ipv6_gateway_enable
service netif restart
service routing restart
ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -N ''
config save

Then display the public SSH key (need to declare it into the customer 3's firewall):

cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa (...) root@R3

Router 4: multi-tenant ipfw firewall

Router 4 is a multi-tenant ipfw firewall: It hosts 3 firewalls for each customer.

Then we will configure:

  • Bridge and VLAN interfaces
  • Enable ipfw (firewall modules needs to be loaded on the host for being available into jails)
sysrc hostname=R4
sysrc cloned_interfaces="bridge0"
sysrc ifconfig_bridge0="inet 10.254.254.4/24 addm vtnet3"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet3="up"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4="up"
sysrc vlans_vtnet4="1 2 3"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_1="up"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_2="up"
sysrc ifconfig_vtnet4_3="up"
sysrc firewall_enable="YES"
sysrc firewall_nat_enable="YES"
sysrc firewall_type="open"
service netif restart
hostname R4
service ipfw start
config save

Then install the customers SSH public keys:

echo "ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABA... root@R1" > /tmp/cust1.ssh.pub
echo "ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABA... root@R2" > /tmp/cust2.ssh.pub
echo "ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABA... root@R3" > /tmp/cust3.ssh.pub

Create 3 jailed firewalls, one for each customers:

tenant -c -j customer1 -f /tmp/cust1.ssh.pub -i bridge0/10.254.254.1/24,vtnet4.1/10.0.0.254/24 -g 10.254.254.5
tenant -c -j customer2 -f /tmp/cust2.ssh.pub -i bridge0/10.254.254.2/24,vtnet4.2/10.0.0.254/24 -g 10.254.254.5
tenant -c -j customer3 -f /tmp/cust3.ssh.pub -i bridge0/10.254.254.3/24,vtnet4.3/10.0.0.254/24 -g 10.254.254.5

Last step, because they are virtual firewalls and not simple routers, we will enable firewall in open mode into their internal rc.conf for allowing customers to SSH into them:

sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer1/rc.conf firewall_enable="YES" 
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer1/rc.conf firewall_nat_enable="YES"
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer1/rc.conf firewall_type="open"
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer2/rc.conf firewall_enable="YES" 
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer2/rc.conf firewall_nat_enable="YES"
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer2/rc.conf firewall_type="open"
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer3/rc.conf firewall_enable="YES" 
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer3/rc.conf firewall_nat_enable="YES"
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer3/rc.conf firewall_type="open"

Configuration will be now automatically saved when changed detected into /etc, then you do not need to use “config save” on the host once a jail is created.

Then to start the jails:

service jail start

Customers firewalls configuration

Each customer should be able to ssh into their new firewalls using their SSH keys.

Customer 1

From customer 1's workstation R1:

[root@R1]~# ssh 10.0.0.254
The authenticity of host '10.0.0.254 (10.0.0.254)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:extHiTI3L94Ks1TPnMI66zq+4t+frkAnvRVSkYk3qak.
No matching host key fingerprint found in DNS.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.0.0.254' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
BSD Router project (BSDRP) (c) 2009-2017, The BSDRP Development Team
All rights reserved.
BSDRP is under the Simplified BSD license.
 
Documentation: http://bsdrp.net
 
Discover BSDRP tools with "help" command
 
Keyboard layout can be changed with this command:
kbdcontrol -l keymap_file (<TAB> for list available maps)
root has logged on pts/0 from 10.0.0.1.
[root@customer1]~#

Now connected to his firewall, this customer can configure its own firewall rules:

sysrc -x firewall_type
sysrc firewall_script="/etc/ipfw.rules"
 
cat > /etc/ipfw.rules <<'EOF'
#!/bin/sh
fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw -q"
ext_if="epair1b"
int_if="vtnet4.1"
${fwcmd} -f flush
${fwcmd} nat 1 config if ${ext_if} same_ports deny_in unreg_only reset
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via lo0
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via ${int_if}
${fwcmd} add nat 1 ip from any to any via ${ext_if}
'EOF'
service ipfw restart
config save

Check firewall rules:

[root@customer1]~# ipfw show
00100  0    0 allow ip from any to any via lo0
00200 91 7756 allow ip from any to any via vtnet4.1
00300  0    0 nat 1 ip from any to any via epair1b
65535  0    0 deny ip from any to any

Now, from R1, try to reach public Internet server R5:

[root@R1]~# ping -c 3 10.254.254.5
PING 10.254.254.5 (10.254.254.5): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.211 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.186 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.181 ms
 
--- 10.254.254.5 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.181/0.193/0.211/0.013 ms

Customer 2

From customer 2's workstation R1:

[root@R2]~# ssh 10.0.0.254
The authenticity of host '10.0.0.254 (10.0.0.254)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:zC+ryVAd9v1lTvSb+THFj5i8aYfFi2I6VvayF1TIhVo.
No matching host key fingerprint found in DNS.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.0.0.254' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
BSD Router project (BSDRP) (c) 2009-2017, The BSDRP Development Team
All rights reserved.
BSDRP is under the Simplified BSD license.
 
Documentation: http://bsdrp.net
 
Discover BSDRP tools with "help" command
 
Keyboard layout can be changed with this command:
kbdcontrol -l keymap_file (<TAB> for list available maps)
root has logged on pts/0 from 10.0.0.1.
[root@customer2]~#

Now connected to his firewall, this customer can configure its own firewall rules:

sysrc -x firewall_type
sysrc firewall_script="/etc/ipfw.rules"
 
cat > /etc/ipfw.rules <<'EOF'
#!/bin/sh
fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw -q"
ext_if="epair2b"
int_if="vtnet4.2"
${fwcmd} -f flush
${fwcmd} nat 1 config if ${ext_if} same_ports deny_in unreg_only reset
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via lo0
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via ${int_if}
${fwcmd} add nat 1 ip from any to any via ${ext_if}
'EOF'
service ipfw restart
config save

Check firewall rules:

[root@customer2]~# ipfw show
00100  0    0 allow ip from any to any via lo0
00200 91 7756 allow ip from any to any via vtnet4.2
00300  0    0 nat 1 ip from any to any via epair2b
65535  0    0 deny ip from any to any

Now, from R2, try to public Internet server R5:

[root@R2]~# ping -c 3 10.254.254.5
PING 10.254.254.5 (10.254.254.5): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.211 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.186 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.181 ms
 
--- 10.254.254.5 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.181/0.193/0.211/0.013 ms

Customer 3

From customer 3's workstation R1:

[root@R3]~# ssh 10.0.0.254
The authenticity of host '10.0.0.254 (10.0.0.254)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:iCkc1w5zzeQL+X3qyEwovuEAGNvD+rfftsitMAlK+Xk.
No matching host key fingerprint found in DNS.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.0.0.254' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
BSD Router project (BSDRP) (c) 2009-2017, The BSDRP Development Team
All rights reserved.
BSDRP is under the Simplified BSD license.
 
Documentation: http://bsdrp.net
 
Discover BSDRP tools with "help" command
 
Keyboard layout can be changed with this command:
kbdcontrol -l keymap_file (<TAB> for list available maps)
root has logged on pts/0 from 10.0.0.1.
[root@customer3]~#

Now connected to his firewall, this customer can configure its own firewall rules:

sysrc -x firewall_type
sysrc firewall_script="/etc/ipfw.rules"
 
cat > /etc/ipfw.rules <<'EOF'
#!/bin/sh
fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw -q"
ext_if="epair3b"
int_if="vtnet4.3"
${fwcmd} -f flush
${fwcmd} nat 1 config if ${ext_if} same_ports deny_in unreg_only reset
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via lo0
${fwcmd} add pass ip from any to any via ${int_if}
${fwcmd} add nat 1 ip from any to any via ${ext_if}
'EOF'
service ipfw restart
config save

Check firewall rules:

[root@customer3]~# ipfw show
00100  0    0 allow ip from any to any via lo0
00200 91 7756 allow ip from any to any via vtnet4.3
00300  0    0 nat 1 ip from any to any via epair3b
65535  0    0 deny ip from any to any

Now, from R3, try to public Internet server R5:

[root@R3]~# ping -c 3 10.254.254.5
PING 10.254.254.5 (10.254.254.5): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.211 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.186 ms
64 bytes from 10.254.254.5: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.181 ms
 
--- 10.254.254.5 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.181/0.193/0.211/0.013 ms

Using pf firewall in place of ipfw

pf need a little more configuration because by default /dev/pf is hidden from jail.

Then, on the host we need to:

  1. In place of loading the ipfw/ipfw-nat modules we need to load the pf module (but still disabling pf on our host for this example)
  2. Modify default devd rules for allowing jails to see /dev/pf (if you want to use tcpdump inside your jail, you should use bpf device too)
  3. Replacing nojail tag by nojailvnet tag into /etc/rc.d/pf (already done into BSDRP and into FreeBSD -head)

Preparing configuration:

cat > /etc/devfs.rules <<'EOF'
[devfsrules_jailpf=4]
add include $devfsrules_hide_all
add include $devfsrules_unhide_basic
add include $devfsrules_unhide_login
add path 'pf' unhide
'EOF'
pf_enable="YES"
pf_flags="-d" 
echo "set skip on {lo1 vtnet4}" > /etc/pf.conf

Now reloading devd and loading pf module:

service pf start
service devfs restart

You can now declare pf in place of ipfw into your jails rc.conf:

sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer1/rc.conf pf_enable="YES"
echo "pass all" > /etc/jails/customer1/pf.conf
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer2/rc.conf pf_enable="YES"
echo "pass all" > /etc/jails/customer2/pf.conf
sysrc -f /etc/jails/customer3/rc.conf pf_enable="YES"
echo "pass all" > /etc/jails/customer3/pf.conf

Now you can start customers jails, and let customers SSH into their firewalls and configure their own rules:

[root@customer2]~# pfctl -s rules
pass all flags S/SA keep state

Under the hood: jails-on-nanobsd

BSDRP's tenant shell script creates jail configuration compliant with a host running nanobsd.

Then these jails need to be configured for a nanobsd:

  1. Being nullfs based for being hosted on a read-only root filesystem
  2. Have their /etc and /var into tmpfs disks (then we need to populate these directory before each start)
  3. Configuration changes need to be saved with nanobsd configuration tools, like “config save” on BSDRP

And on the host:

  1. autosave daemon need to be enabled: Each time a customer will issue a “config save” inside a jail, his configuration diffs will be save into host's /etc/jails/. And this directory is a RAM disk too, then we need to automatically save hosts configuration on changes.

Here are examples of configuration files generated:

host jail.conf:

customer1 {
    jid = 1;
    path          = "/var/jails/customer1";
    # Because we are using jail on nanobsd, the jail directories are volatil (mounted into /var/jails)
    # They didn't exist after a reboot, then we need to create jail directories with exec.prestart
    # But mount.* instructions are called before exec.prestart, then we need to call mount manually
    # into the exec.prestart
    #mount.devfs;
    #mount.fstab   = "/etc/fstab.customer1";
    #devfs_ruleset = 4;
    host.hostname = "customer1";
    vnet new;
    allow.chflags = 1;
    exec.start    = "/bin/sh /etc/rc";
    exec.stop     = "/bin/sh /etc/rc.shutdown";
    exec.clean;
    exec.consolelog = "/var/log/jail.customer1";
    exec.poststop  = "logger poststop jail customer1";
    # Commands to run on host before jail is created
    exec.prestart  = "logger pre-starting jail customer1";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/dev";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/etc";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/var";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/cfg";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/root";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/bin";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/sbin";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/lib";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/libexec";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/usr";
    exec.prestart  += "mkdir -p /var/jails/customer1/conf/base";
    exec.prestart  += "test -L /var/jails/customer1/tmp || ln -s /var/tmp /var/jails/customer1/tmp";
    exec.prestart  += "mount -F /etc/fstab.customer1 -a";
    exec.prestart  += "mount -t devfs -o rw,ruleset=4 devfs /var/jails/customer1/dev";
 
    # Copy reference and backuped files to /etc
    exec.prestart  += "cp -a /conf/base/ /var/jails/customer1";
    exec.prestart  += "cp -a /etc/jails/customer1/ /var/jails/customer1/etc/";
    # Prevent diskless
    exec.prestart  += "test -f /var/jails/customer1/etc/diskless && rm /var/jails/customer1/etc/diskless
|| true";
    vnet.interface  += "epair1b";
    exec.prestart  += "ifconfig epair1 create up";
    exec.prestart  += "ifconfig epair1a up";
    exec.prestart  += "ifconfig bridge0 addm epair1a up";
    # fix bug that assing same MAC to all epairXb interface
    # TO DO: convert this id into hexa
    exec.prestart  += "ifconfig epair1b ether 02:ff:00:00:ff:1";
    exec.poststop  += "ifconfig bridge0 deletem epair1a";
    exec.poststop  += "ifconfig epair1a destroy";
    vnet.interface  += "vtnet4.1";
    exec.poststop  += "ifconfig vtnet4.1 -vnet 1";
    exec.prestart  += "logger jail customer1 pre-started";
    exec.poststop  += "umount /var/jails/customer1/dev";
    exec.poststop  += "umount -a -F /etc/fstab.customer1";
    exec.poststop  += "logger jail customer1 post-stopped";
}

/etc/fstab.customer1:

tmpfs /var/jails/customer1/etc tmpfs rw,size=16000000 0 0
tmpfs /var/jails/customer1/var tmpfs rw,size=16000000 0 0
/root /var/jails/customer1/root nullfs ro 0 0
/bin /var/jails/customer1/bin nullfs ro 0 0
/sbin /var/jails/customer1/sbin nullfs ro 0 0
/lib /var/jails/customer1/lib nullfs ro 0 0
/libexec /var/jails/customer1/libexec nullfs ro 0 0
/usr /var/jails/customer1/usr nullfs ro 0 0
/conf/base /var/jails/customer1/conf/base nullfs ro 0 0
/etc/jails/customer1 /var/jails/customer1/cfg nullfs rw,noatime 0 0
documentation/examples/multi-tenant_router_and_firewall.txt · Last modified: 2017/08/31 16:25 by olivier